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Friday, December 9, 2011

Are Asian's Discriminated Against When Appling To College?

Story first appeared in The Detroit News.

Lanya Olmstead was born in Florida to a mother who emigrated from Taiwan and an American father of Norwegian ancestry. Ethnically, she considers herself half Taiwanese and half Norwegian. But when applying to Harvard, Olmstead checked only one box for her race: white.

For years, many Asian-Americans have been convinced that it's harder for them to gain admission to the nation's top colleges.

Studies show that Asian-Americans meet these colleges' admissions standards far out of proportion to their 6 percent representation in the U.S. population and that they often need test scores hundreds of points higher than applicants from other ethnic groups to have an equal chance of admission. Critics say these numbers, along with the fact that some top colleges with race-blind admissions have double the Asian percentage of Ivy League schools, prove the existence of discrimination.

The way it works, the critics believe, is that Asian-Americans are evaluated not as individuals, but against the thousands of other ultra-achieving Asians who are stereotyped as boring academic robots.

Now, an unknown number of students are responding to this concern by declining to identify themselves as Asian on their applications.

For those with only one Asian parent, whose names don't give away their heritage, that decision can be relatively easy. Harder are the questions that it raises: What's behind the admissions difficulties? What, exactly, is an Asian-American — and is being one a choice?

Olmstead is a freshman at Harvard and a member of HAPA, the Half-Asian People's Association. In high school she had a perfect 4.0 grade-point average and scored 2150 out of a possible 2400 on the SAT, which she calls pretty low.

College applications ask for parent information, so Olmstead knows that admissions officers could figure out a student's background that way. She did write in the word multiracial on her own application.

Still, she would advise students with one Asian parent to check whatever race is not Asian.

Not to really generalize, but a lot of Asians, they have perfect SATs, perfect GPAs ... so it's hard to let them all in.

Amalia Halikias is a Yale freshman whose mother was born in America to Chinese immigrants; her father is a Greek immigrant. She also checked only the "white" box on her application.

As someone who was applying with relatively strong scores, she didn't want to be grouped into that stereotype. She didn't want to be written off as one of the 1.4 billion Asians that were applying.

Her mother was extremely encouraging of that decision even though she places a high value on preserving their Chinese heritage.

But leaving the Asian box blank felt wrong to Jodi Balfe, a Harvard freshman who was born in South Korea and came here at age 3 with her Korean mother and white American father. She checked the box against the advice of her high school guidance counselor, teachers and friends.

Other students, however, feel no conflict between a strong Asian identity and their response to what they believe is injustice.

Immigration from Asian countries was heavily restricted until laws were changed in 1965. When the gates finally opened, many Asian arrivals were well-educated, endured hardships to secure more opportunities for their families, and were determined to seize the American dream through effort and education.

These immigrants, and their descendants, often demanded that children work as hard as humanly possible to achieve. Parental respect is paramount in Asian culture, so many children have obeyed — and excelled.

Of course, not all Asian-Americans fit this stereotype. They are not always obedient hard workers who get top marks. Some embrace American rather than Asian culture. Their economic status, ancestral countries and customs vary, and their forebears may have been rich or poor.

But compared with American society in general, Asian-Americans have developed a much stronger emphasis on intense academic preparation as a path to a handful of the very best schools.

Does Holmes think children of American parents are generally spoiled and lazy by comparison?

Asian students have higher average SAT scores than any other group, including whites. A study by Princeton sociologist Thomas Espenshade examined applicants to top colleges from 1997, when the maximum SAT score was 1600 (today it's 2400). Espenshade found that Asian-Americans needed a 1550 SAT to have an equal chance of getting into an elite college as white students with a 1410 or black students with an 1100.

Top schools that don't ask about race in admissions process have very high percentages of Asian students. The California Institute of Technology, a private school that chooses not to consider race, is about one-third Asian. (Thirteen percent of California residents have Asian heritage.) The University of California-Berkeley, which is forbidden by state law to consider race in admissions, is more than 40 percent Asian — up from about 20 percent before the law was passed.

Steven Hsu, a physics professor at the University of Oregon and a vocal critic of current admissions policies, says there is a clear statistical case that discrimination exists.

Yale, Harvard, Princeton and the University of Pennsylvania declined to make admissions officers available for interviews for this story.

Kara Miller helped read applications for the Yale admissions office when she was an undergraduate there, and participated in meetings where admissions decisions were made. She says it often felt like Asians were held to a higher standard.

Highly selective colleges do use much more than SAT scores and grades to evaluate applicants. Other important factors include extracurricular activities, community service, leadership, maturity, engagement in learning, and overcoming adversity.

Admissions preferences are sometimes given to the children of alumni, the wealthy and celebrities, which is an overwhelmingly white group. Recruited athletes get breaks. Since the top colleges say diversity is crucial to a world-class education, African-Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders also may get in despite lower scores than other applicants.

A college like Yale could fill their entire freshman class twice over with qualified Asian students or white students or valedictorians,says Rosita Fernandez-Rojo, a former college admissions officer who is now director of college counseling at Rye Country Day School outside of New York City.

But applicants are not ranked by results of a qualifications test, she says — "it's a selection process."

In the end, elite colleges often don't have room for Asian students with outstanding scores and grades.

That's one reason why Harvard freshman Heather Pickerell, born in Hong Kong to a Taiwanese mother and American father, refused to check any race box on her application.

She considers drawing lines between different ethnic groups a form of racism — and says her ethnic identity depends on where she is.

Holmes, the Yale sophomore with the Chinese-born mother, also has problems fitting herself into the Asian box.

"I feel like an American," she says, "... an Asian person who grew up in America."

Susanna Koetter, a Yale junior with an American father and Korean mother, was adamant about identifying her Asian side on her application. Yet she calls herself "not fully Asian-American. I'm mixed Asian-American. When I go to Korea, I'm like, blatantly white."

And yet, asked whether she would have considered leaving the Asian box blank, she says: That would be messed up. I'm not white.

She didn't check the box, even though her last name is a giveaway and her essay was about Asian-American identity.

Looking back I don't agree with what I did, Zhuang says. It was more like a symbolic action for her to rebel against the higher standard placed on Asian-American applicants.

Hsu, the physics professor, says that if the current admissions policies continue, it will become more common for Asian students to avoid identifying themselves as such, and schools will have to react.

The lines are already blurred at Yale, where almost 26,000 students applied for the current freshman class, according to the school's web site.

About 1,300 students were admitted. Twenty percent of them marked the Asian-American box on their applications; 15 percent of freshmen marked two or more ethnicities.

Ten percent of Yale's freshmen class did not check a single box.

Google Receives AdMeld Acquisition Approval

Story first appeared in USA TODAY.

The Justice Department approved Google's acquisition of online advertising service Admeld after concluding the deal wouldn't diminish competition in one of the Internet's most lucrative marketing niches.

The decision announced Friday clears the way for Google (GOOG) to take control of Admeld six months after the companies agreed to the deal. Google said it plans to take control of Admeld within the next few days, although the two companies' products will remain separate for a while longer.

It's the fourth time since 2007 that that the U.S. government has taken a close look at a Google acquisition to determine if it would stifle competition or drive up prices. Google has gained regulatory approval in each instance. In 2008, though, Google backed out of a proposed partnership with Yahoo (YHOO) to avoid a legal battle with the Justice Department.

The Justice Department is still reviewing Google's proposed takeover of cell phone maker Motorola Mobility Holdings (MMI). That $12.5 billion deal is the biggest in Google's 13-year history.

The Federal Trade Commission is in the midst of a broader inquiry into whether Google has been abusing its dominance of Internet search to make it harder for people to find rival services and apply pressure on advertisers to pay higher prices. Google has consistently predicted that investigation will be resolved in its favor.

Google hasn't disclosed how much it is paying for Admeld, a New York company that works with websites to help them figure out how to make the most money from the amount of space they have available for display ads. It's a steadily growing field of advertising that emphasizes photos, video and illustrations instead of Google's specialty of distributing text-based commercial links alongside search results.

The Justice Department said that privately held Admeld, formed in 2007, raised about $30 million in 2010 to help fund its operations.

Google generated revenue of about $29 billion last year and analysts expect it to surpass $38 billion in revenue this year. Most of Google's revenue still comes from search advertising.

In an attempt to diversify beyond search advertising, Google bought DoubleClick for $3.2 billion in 2008. That deal is turning display advertising into a major moneymaker for Google, but the company's market share in the segment still lags behind Facebook and Yahoo, according to the research firm eMarketer Inc.

That apparently helped sway the Justice Department to approve the Admeld deal.

UAW Continues Negotiations

Story first appeared in the Detroit Free Press.

The UAW is continuing to negotiate with a General Motors supplier owned by the Ambassador Bridge's Moroun family, but union leaders are considering whether to protest or even strike the supplier's operations inside GM's Orion Township plant.

The union had planned to protest LINC Logistics on Wednesday morning, but called off those plans ahead of a renewed effort to make progress in contract negotiations. Talks continued into the evening Wednesday, said Pat Sweeney, president of Orion's UAW Local 5960. This would be the LINC employees' first union contract, Sweeney said.

The outcome will determine whether the UAW takes any action. A strike could disrupt production of the Chevrolet Sonic subcompact or the Buick Verano compact, which are built at the GM plant. LINC's employees, who work inside the GM factory, voted unanimously in June to strike if UAW leaders call for a walkout.

Negotiations have dragged on for months between the UAW and LINC, which organizes and distributes parts at automakers' plants. LINC workers currently make less than $10 an hour.

The Orion Township factory restarted production this year after getting a reprieve from GM's plan to close it as part of its 2009 bankruptcy. GM now employs about 1,600 hourly workers in Orion -- about 60% at the $28-an-hour first-tier wage and the rest at about $16 an hour. A couple of suppliers also have employees working inside the GM factory, in part thanks to space freed up by the plant's redesigned body shop.

Separately, the Orion Township factory had a small fire around 8 a.m. Wednesday in its body shop. GM called the fire department as a precautionary measure and evacuated the body shop, but restarted production by 9 a.m. The fire did not impact production and no one was injured.